Charles Nelson Pogue invented a carburetor that vaporized gasoline, instead of nebulizing it into tiny drops, thus dramatically increasing mileage per gallon of gasoline used.

Pogue Carburetor - A press report from that time read as follows:

Double-Mixing Carburetor Increases Power and Mileage

A NEW carburetor that makes mileage of 200 miles per gallon a possibility has been invented by a Winnipeg, Can., engineer. It has been tested and examined by several automotive engineers who claim it is entirely feasible in its action.

C.N. Pogue, the inventor, supplies his carburetor with two mixing chambers instead of one. The gasoline is vaporized in the primary chamber and before being used is sent through another mixing chamber. Here, since it is vapor that burns and not liquid gasoline, the gasoline is further vaporized into a still finer mixture. This insures more power and mileage from usual quantity of liquid gasoline.

The main factors that affect gasoline ignition is Air fuel mixture. Air fuel mixture must be between a 7:1 and 20:1 ratio to ignite properly. When the engine is cold it may be hard to obtain even the leanest ratio because the fuel may not vaporize sufficiently. This ratio is increased by the use of a choke (or now a fuel injector system). A choke literally chokes the engine of fuel - cuts off flow to the bare minimal until the engine reaches operating temperature. Once the engine is warm enough you would disengage the choke to allow normal fuel flow. The temperature definitely has a great affect on ignition. At lower temperatures, less evaporation, therefore smaller surface area then gasoline in a vapor form.

Gasoline in a vapor form is better because it has a larger surface area for the reaction (combustion) to take place. Temperature has a profound affect on the carb jetting because of the changes in air density. When the air density increases, you will need to richen (add more fuel) to the air-fuel mixture to compensate. When the air density decreases, you will need to lean-out (reduce the fuel intake) the air-fuel mixture to compensate.

Factor that Affect Air Density is air temperature. As the air temperature increases the air density becomes lower. This will make the air-fuel mixture richer (more fuel consumed). When the pressure decreases, the opposite effect occurs - less fuel consumed.

The concept of gasoline vapor induction goes back at least as far as 1915 with patents illustrating how gasoline in a gaseous state is explosive, hence dynamic. Gasoline in a liquid state must be converted to a gas before burning can take place; it’s the rapid burning that causes the air and fuel mixture to expand, hence a downward force during the power (down stroke) stroke of a piston in a reciprocating engine.

Since vaporization occurs for the burning process to conclude, Gasoline Vapor Induction (also referred to as GVI) simply pre-stages the gasoline to release the hydrocarbon in a gas form early on in the process. This phase change allows the hydrocarbon to release its energy dynamically (like a stick of dynamite) versus thermally (like a corked tea kettle as it starts to boil).

Atmospheric pressure abounds on planet Earth, and that is a large factor in determining the state of matter in our troposphere. In order to boil a liquid (convert from a liquid to a gas) the atmospheric pressure must be overcome. One common way to do this is to add heat (increase the average ambient kinetic energy per cubic inch) until the molecules are excited enough to break free from the meniscus of the liquid. This is a high-energy mechanism to accomplish a natural phase change in matter.

A low-energy solution was discovered by inventor George Talbert in the 1960’s; remove the atmospheric pressure and the compound (when possible) converts to a gas in favor of its’ self-defining properties. Gasoline is abundant with such compounds; hence it releases the hydrocarbons in gaseous form readily at less than one atmosphere.

George Talbert’s Fuel vaporizing system on a 1981 Oldsmobile.

The first step in the process is to capture fuel in a liquid state from the fuel pump. This is accomplished with a fuel filter containing two output fuel line connections. Connected immediately after the fuel line filter/splitter, is a fuel line connected to a vaporization canister.

This particular vaporization canister was made from an exhaust pipe reducer/coupler. The reducer has a float connected to the incoming fuel line. The float allows the canister to only fill to the one-half-way point with liquid fuel, and then the float closes the fuel supply to the canister. The exhaust pipe reducer/coupler is sealed at both ends with metal disks that are welded on each end to create an atmosphere resistant container. The top of the canister has a small (1/32 of one inch inner diameter) copper line that protrudes through it; it is also sealed from atmosphere, by a solder joint.

The copper line is snuggly connected to a vapor line, and the other end of the vapor line is connected to a spacer plate that is below the base plate of the existing carburetor, which was installed at the factory in 1981. The carburetor was modified by removing the fuel rods during a rebuild, and the jets were soldered shut. No fuel passes through the carburetor as the fuel line to the carburetor was removed and sealed with a bolt and hose clamp.

In the spacer plate at the top of the intake manifold is an infuser. There is nothing special about the infuser, it is a fuel rod made of copper with dozens of tiny holes drilled throughout its’ length. The copper fuel rod is inside of a metal outer rod that is spaced 1/32 of inch around the fuel rod, covering the fuel rods’ entire length. The metal tube that encases the fuel rod has small holes drilled at 45 degrees and 90 degrees.

When the piston travels its’ down stroke path into the cylinder of the engine block, a vacuum it created. That vacuum is transferred (via the vapor line mentioned earlier) to the vaporization canister. Inside the canister the atmospheric pressure is reduced causing the fuel to convert to a very fine atomized mist. That mist is carried via the vacuum line to a flow control valve (used to meter the amount of vaporized fuel particles available to the infuser) and then to the infuser at the base of the carburetor. Above the infuser is a throttle plate and below the infuser is a throttle plate. The plates are comprised of butterfly cover plates connected to the throttle linkage and a return spring. A common linkage to keep them synchronized connects all the throttle plates.

When the gasoline fog (fine mist) reaches the infuser, heat and airflow come into play. It has been noted that more humid atmospheric conditions create a smoother operating engine. The gasoline fog converts into a gaseous hydrocarbon in the hot infuser and mixes with the incoming air. The air fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder and an explosion occurs thus driving the piston downward by concussion, versus rapid thermal expansion; and an economy of force per cubic inch of fuel expended is achieved. The isometric mixture seems to remain near fifteen parts air to one part fuel, but a more powerful explosive force precedes a turbulent concussive shockwave driving the piston. Due to the more volatile state of the air fuel mixture, the timing was set to 4 degrees before top dead center versus the factory setting of 18 degrees after top dead center. The spark advance is currently not in use due to the disconnection of the accelerator pump.

Originally the accelerator pump was to be used (as illustrated in the drawing) but the decision to bypass it was finalized during construction of the actual working model. The flow control is manually set for optimal performance during each operating cycle of the engine. Temperature and humidity do effect the operation of the engine; the vapor flow can be altered via setting the valve to more opened, or more closed to smooth out the operation of the engine. By setting the flow control valve, acceleration can be achieved while bypassing the accelerator pump.